Generation of Mobile Communication

What is 1G or First Generation mobile Communication?

1G or first generation of wireless cellular technology (mobile telecommunications) is the analog communication which is were introduced in the 1980s and continued until being replaced by 2G digital telecommunications.

Difference between 1G and 2G technology is that only the radio signals used by 1G networks are analog, while 2G networks are digital.The first commercially 1G cellular network was launched in Japan by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone (NTT) in 1979, initially in the metropolitan area of Tokyo and people only use voice call service.

Motorola DynaTAC was the first 1G portable mobile phone manufactured by MOTOROLA which is approved by U.S FCC on Sept 21, 1983.

What is 2G or Second Generation mobile Communication?

2G or 2nd generation cellular technology was introduced in Finland in 1991. 2G also called GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) which use TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) modulation technology .Its use the frequency band known as GSM-900 which is extended cover a larger Frequency range. This ‘extended GSM‘, E-GSM, uses frequency range 880 – 915 MHz (uplink) and 925 – 960 MHz (downlink), adding 50 channels (channel numbers 975 to 1023 and 0) to the original GSM-900 band.

2G communication came with advanced features compared to 1G with digitally encrypted phone conversation technology, Device are significantly more efficient use of the radio frequency spectrum enabling more users per frequency band and Data services for mobile, starting with SMS text messages.

2G technology offer DATA service which is called GPRS (General Pocket Radio Service) with maximum transfer speed up to 40kbps. Later it is upgraded to EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution), there is a theoretical maximum transfer speed of 384 kbps.

What is 3G or Third Generation mobile Communication?

3G or 3rd generation mobile communication is upgradation over 2G/2.5G with better DATA speed.3G mobile devices and mobile telecommunications use services and networks that comply with the International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) committee

3G networks also called UMTS ( Universal Mobile Telecommunications System ) networks. Frequency band allotted for 3G are 1900 and 2100 MHz band with W-CDMA (Wide Band Code Division Multiple Access) modulation technology.

In early 1992’s research and development work started for 3G technology by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). The first pre-commercial 3G network was launched by NTT DoCoMo in Japan in 1998. But it takes 2 years for final commercial launch of 3G was also by NTT DoCoMo in Japan on 1 October 2001.

3G provides various enhanced application in wireless voicetelephony, mobile Internet access, fixed wireless Internet access, video calls and mobile TV. Also having video call conferencing facility within same operator. As per IMT-2000 standard 3G network provide higher transmission rates: a minimum data rate of 2 Mbit/s for stationary or walking users, and 348 kbit/s in a moving vehicle. With the further development depending on the underlying technology deployed; up to 384kbit/s for WCDMA, up to 7.2Mbit/sec for HSPA and a theoretical maximum of 21.6 Mbit/s for HSPA+ (technically 3.5G

What is 4G or Fourth Generation mobile Communication?

4G is the fourth generation of mobile communication introduced in 2009 with first release Long Term Evaluation (LTE) technology which offer high data rates as compared to 3G. This 4G specification are set by the International Telecommunications Union-Radio communications sector (ITU-R) having peak speed requirements for 4G service at 100 megabits per second (Mbit/s)(=12.5 megabytes per second) for high mobility communication (trains and cars) and 1 gigabit per second (Gbit/s) for low mobility communication (pedestrians and stationary users)

4G technology works only in IP platform as unlike as 2G/3G work in circuit switch technology. So network architecture use in 4G have vast difference compared to 2G/3G network. Frequency band allotted for 4G network is 2-8 GHz. In INDIA, 2300 to 2400 MHz (TD-LTEfrequency range and 1800 MHz also used.

4G provides most advanced feature as compared to 3G as mobile web access, IP telephony, gaming services, high-definition mobile TVvideo conferencing, and 3D television.

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